Violence: Jim Crow South and The Anti-Civil Rights Movement

Quotes and Documents found under the Theme "Violence" lead to personal reflections and documentary evidence of the reality of Jim Crow laws in the South and the actions of the anti-Civil Rights Movement between the years of 1954-1973.  The reality of violence against African Americans and others who joined the struggle for civil rights during these years was both outrageously horrific (church burnings, murders, beatings, lynchings etc.) and an insidious part of "every day life" (laws legalizing separation of African Americans from white main stream society and banning participation in civic life). The interview excerpts and documents, from sometimes very divergent points-of-view, provide opportunities to seek an understanding of how violence pervaded southern society and how people responded to the violence.

Quotes from interviews associated with this theme are listed below. To see excerpts from interview transcripts, click on the associated Excerpts link below each quote.

"The civil rights movement was devoid of grace; it was using some unfortunate people as means to a communistic end." Sam Bowers
"If I was an exceptional human being in Detroit, then I saw no reason why I couldn't be an exceptional human being in Mississippi. In Hattiesburg. " Victoria Gray Adams
"I think I came here as a priest… The priest is more concerned with heresy than with sin; sins can be forgiven; heresy must be eliminated." Sam Bowers
"They were beginning to burn churches. They were beginning to move beyond crosses… They burned churches because they understood that the Christian faith was what inspired the movement and kept it going." Ed King
"I have to confess it wasn't a crusading issue with me... In those days, the white liberal was the one who was deeply concerned about making sure blacks got a good education... he was deeply committed to... separate but equal school accommodations." Duncan Gray
"There was no miracle that night…" Ed King
"...I fell on my knees and started praying to God that he would spare my husband, spare his life..." Roosevelt and Beatrice Cole
"…if you had an alteration with a white person who was trailing you or whatever or giving you the finger; he's not gonna do anything right then; he's gonna go home and organize and then come get you." Cleveland Sellers
" prosecution of klansmen was done in some way to restore civilization to the county." Charles Pickering
"They saw no contradictions in how they treated me and Christianity." Spencer Perkins
"...but what drives me too is I imagine... my mother [saying to me], 'What did you do for other people like me?...What did you do for other people like me?' this idea of the poor, it’s so deeply rooted." John Perkins
"[The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission operated as] something akin to NKVD (the public and secret police in the Soviet Union during the reign of Joseph Stalin) among the cotton patches. " Wilson Minor
"Except for the mercy of God, I don't see how it was possible for us to keep from getting hurt. And if this had happened an hour earlier, it would have gotten my whole family. My babies were playing the piano about eleven o-clock." Allan Johnson
"And so they tortured us in that jail. And that’s when I said to God, 'If you allow me to get out of here alive... then I want to preach a Gospel that is stronger than my race... I want to preach a Gospel that could reconcile black and whites together.'" John Perkins
"...I began to realize that perhaps it wasn't God's doings, but man's. God didn't turn them away from our churches--we did... God didn't make ragged, hungry little boys pick rotten oranges and fruit out of the garbage can and eat them--we did." Clarence Jordan
"I experienced the presence of the Divine as I had never experienced Him before... Almost at once my fears began to go... My uncertainty disappeared. I was ready to face anything." Martin Luther King

Find below primary and secondary resources located in the Project on Lived Theology's Civil Rights Archive associated with this Theme. Click on a title to see the full record.

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1999 Charles Marsh "Douglas Hudgins: Theologican of the Closed Society"
James Atwater
Lynn Pelham
"If We Can Crack Mississippi...": At the Risk of Their Lives, Hundreds of Northern Students Are Challenging the Heart of the Deep South
2005 Charles Marsh "In the Fields of the Lord: The God Movement in South Georgia"
1970 John Egerton "John Lewis," from A Mind to Stay Here
1993 David Zurawik "March to Freedom": An Outstanding Hour For Local Television
1968 Unknown "Not Guilty" Bowers Plea At Collins
1997 Paul Gaston "Sitting In" in the 'Sixties: A Historian's Memoir
1964 Ed King "The Canton Road"
1963 Unknown $5,000 Reward Offer Made As Youth Shot
1968 Unknown 'Break' Brings 12 Indictments
1964 James Atwater 'If We Can Crack Mississippi...'
1994 Jerry Mitchell 'Mississippi is Free at Last' with Conviction
1968 Unknown 14 of 16 Arrested
1968 Unknown 16 Plead Not Guilty
1963 Unknown 1963 Student Interracial Ministry
1963 Unknown 2 White Men Lead Crowd
1963 Unknown 24-Hour Watch Posted at Steel City Churches: Seeking to Minimize Dangers of Bombing
1963 Claude Sitton 27 Are Arrested in Jackson Riots After Evers Rite
1964 Unknown 3 Women Challenge House Seating: Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer, Mrs. Annie Devine, Mrs. Victoria Gray
1972 Eleanor Blau 30-Year-Old Christian Commune in Georgia Thrives Under Adversity
1963 Unknown 35 Are Jailed in Danville, Va., As Negroes Defy Protest Ban
1968 Unknown 4 Dahmer Defendants Post Bonds, Out of Jail
1994 Joe Atkins A Conviction of Beckwith Won't Make Mississippi Look Any Better
1965 Janet Harbison A Costly Ministry
1994 Sid Salter A Guilty Verdict Won't Alter Image: Racism Remains Potent Part of Mississippi Politics Whether Beckwith is Convicted or Not
1971 Richard Aubrey McLemore A History of Mississippi Baptists, 1780-1970
1966 Arlie Schardt A Mississippi Mayor Fights the Klan
Jim Sessions
Sue Thrasher
John Lewis
A New Day Begun
1964 Unknown A Program for the Student Voice, Inc.
1954 Tom P. Brady A Review of Black Monday
1994 Unknown Albuquerque Journal June 26, 1994 Issue
1968 Eliott Chaze Alleged Kleagle Goes On Trial: First Case for 12 Men
1964 Christopher S. Wren An "Insider" Stays to Fight
2008 David Tisdale An Interview with Peggy Jean Connor: A Pioneer in Mississippi Civil Rights
1994 Horace Buckley Are We in Mississippi Ready to Right the Wrongs That Have Been Done?
1968 Elliott Chaze At Hattiesburg: Bowers Trial Nearing Jury
1968 Unknown At Hattiesburg: Places Bowers in Dahmer Case
1998 Jerry Mitchell Authorities Discover Missing Dahmer Trial Transcript: State Law Allows Transcript Testimony to be Used in New Trials
1998 Jerry Mitchell Authorities Study Bowers Transcripts: '80s Interviews May Show Klansman's Role in Vernon Dahmer Death
1963 Charles Portis Battle Flares, Nipped After Miss. Funeral
1994 Danny McKenzie Beckwith Conviction Has Changed Views About Mississippi
1994 Mitchell Landsberg Beckwith Didn't Testify at Own Trial
1994 Sarah Campbell Beckwith Jurors see rifle; dead, ill witnesses 'speak'
1994 Unknown Beckwith Verdict: It's Never Too Late to Find Justice
1960 Lillian Smith Behind the Sit-Ins
1968 Unknown Best Known CR Leader: Vows Marches Will Continue
1964 Louis Cassels Bethesda Minister Outlines Voter Mission in Mississippi
1960 Unknown Birmingham Court Slates Sit-In Trials for Monday
1963 Ed King Birmingham Funerals
2000 Unknown Birmingham Post-Herald May 2000 Issue: Metro Section
1966 James M. Lawson, Jr. Black Power and the Mississippi March
1966 James Peck Black Power: Two Views: 1. Black Racism
Bob Zellner
Plater Robinson
Bob Zellner With Plater Robinson
1968 Unknown Bomb in Car Injures Two
1963 Unknown Bombing Reward Passes $76,000
2000 Staff and Press Reports Bombing Suspect Indicted
1968 Unknown Bombing Trial: State Star Witness is Former Klansman
John McEntyre
Will D. Campbell
Book Review: The Glad River
1998 Jerry Mitchell Bowers Admitted Jury Tampering, Documents Show: Intimidation, Contact by Klan Used to Sway Jurors, FBI Notes Say
1997 Jerry Mitchell Bowers Suspected in Illegal Gaming Operation: Renewed Probe of 1966 Firebombing Leads to Scrutiny of Ex-Klansman's Activities
1968 Unknown Bowers, 'Knights' Targets of Suits
1968 Unknown Bowers, 9 Others Plead Not Guilty
1968 Unknown Bowers, 9 Others Remain In Jail
1957 Unknown Boycott Menaces Integrated Farm
1982 June Johnson Broken Barriers and Billy Sticks
1961 W.B. Selah Brotherhood: A Sermon by Dr. W.B. Selah, Minister
1965 Unknown Brutality Statements Sent in by Natchez Demonstrators
1968 Unknown Buckley Awaits Kidnap Sentence
1968 Unknown Buckley Case Mistrial Entered After Deadlock
1968 Unknown Buckley Gets Sanity Tests
1964 Unknown Burning Negro Churches
1968 Unknown California Vote Favors Kennedy
1997 Jerry Mitchell Capone's, Bowers' Stories Run Parallel, Perhaps Even to Ending: If Charges Emerge from Gaming Probe, Bowers May Join famous Gangster in Slip-Up
Drew Pearson
Jack Anderson
Carmichael Talked With Havana During Race Riots
1962 Unknown Cartoon: "An Individual Who Would Not Kill, Becomes a Killer When Venom Stirred in the Cauldron of Intolerance creates Mob Violence"
1965 Roy Mumme Cartoon: "Well, Jesus Was a Jew, Wasn't He?"
1968 Unknown Cecil Sessum Appeal Overruled by Court
1972 James Forman Chapter 43: The March on Washington
Richard Aubrey McLemore
C.B. Hamlet, III
Chapter Eleven: Mid-Twentieth Century
1984 Paula Giddings Chapter XVI: SNCC: Coming Full Circle
1968 Unknown Charge Bowers in '67 Bombing
1963 Ed King Children's Crusades and Concentration Camps
Clarence Jordan Christian Community in the South
1963 Nicholas Von Hoffman Church Integration Effort in Mississippi: Pro and Con
1980 Gary McElroy Church Preaches Gospel of Race
1991 Sharon Bramlett-Solomon Civil Rights Vanguard in the Deep South: Newspaper Portrayal of Fannie Lou Hamer, 1964-1977
1968 Unknown Clark Hopes Arrest Near
Will Campbell
Bob Hall
Wekesa Madzimoyo
Chris Mayfield
Marc Miller
Joe Pfister
Kathleen Zobel
Jim Overton
Pat Bryan
Clean Up the Botulism
1968 Unknown Clear Way for Return of Ray (Incomplete Document)
Cleveland Sellers
Charles Marsh
Cleveland Sellers Interview, Denmark, South Carolina, 8/5/1995
1968 Unknown Close Guard Over Pitts
1963 Ed King COFO Office
1966 Monroe Sharp Cold Turkey
1968 Unknown Cole Testifies For Defense
1965 Will Campbell Committee to Investigate the Los Angeles Riot (Untitled Article)
1965 Unknown Concentration Camp?
Charles M. Sherrod Concerning the Difficulties Faced by the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (Untitled Article)
1964 Murray Kempton Conscience of a Convention
1964 David Wiley Context for Tragedy
1968 Unknown Court Awaits Buckley Report
1964 Unknown Court Extends Ban On Rights Protest in Jackson, Miss.
1968 Unknown Court Sets Bond for 4 Jailed in Dahmer Case
1968 Unknown Cross Examine State Witness
Nonviolent Agitation Association of College Pupils
Culture Committee Increases Activity
1998 Jerry Mitchell Dahmer Case Attracts International Media: News Outlets from Around World Show Interest in Possible Bowers Retrial
Charles Marsh Dahmer Murder and the Response of the Church, Field Notes
1998 Jerry Mitchell Dahmer Witness Fears for Life: Billy Roy Pitts Still at Large; Officials Hope He'll Cooperate in Reopened Probe
1998 Jerry Mitchell Dahmer's Files Turned Over to Authorities
1963 Unknown Dayton Clergy Rally to Aid of Negro Family
1965 M.L. Young Dear Editor; M.L. Young to Voice of the People
1963 Ed King Death of Medgar Evers
1968 Unknown DeBoxtel Jury is Incomplete
1968 Unknown Defense Attacks Pitts' Testimony: Use Mother of Defendant
1963 Unknown Defiance
1966 Unknown Dems Dat Block Da Way
1968 Unknown Denies 3 Bond in Dahmer Case
Jimmie Briggs
Bob Moses
Doug Mindell
Dialogue with Bob Moses: Architect of the 1964 Freedom Summer
Jerry Mitchell
Beverly Pettigrew Kraft
Do Klansman's Memoirs Tell 'Truth' on Killings?: Sam Bower's Manuscript Supposedly Tells Who Really Killed King and Evers
1964 Unknown Editorial of Note: Arson in the House of God
1964 Unknown Editorial Page: "Thou Shalt Not Kill"
1964 Unknown Editorial Page: Governor Should Speak: Church Burnings Must Be Stopped
1997 Will Campbell Elvis Presley as Redneck
1994 Unknown Emerge June 1994 Issue
1968 Unknown Enter Mistrial in DeBoxtel Case
Ed King
David Dennis
Eulogies for James Chaney - August 7, 1964
1998 Curtis Wilkie Ex-Klansman Details Fiery 1966 Attack Civil Rights
1998 Jerry Mitchell Ex-Klansman Pitts Surrenders: Convicted in Killing of Vernon Dahmer, Pitts Has Not Served State Sentence
1998 Curtis Wilkie Ex-Member Casts Klan Activities as 'Benevolent' Testifies in Trial on 1966 Arson Killing
1968 Kenneth Fairly Explosives Found in Bombing Probe: Klan Chief Bowers Among 10 Indicted
1983 Howell Raines Fannie Lou Hamer
1964 Fannie Lou Hamer Fannie Lou Hamer Affidavit (Untitled Document)
1964 Nicholas Von Hoffman FBI Digs Into Klan Secrets In Grim Mississippi Struggle
1968 Unknown FBI Identifies Giles' Vehicle: Widow Ends Testimony
1998 Jerry Mitchell Feds Say Miss. Freed Ex-Klansman: State Officials Did Not Comment on Conclusion of Billy Roy Pitts' Release
1965 Robert E. Baker Felony Count Dismissed In 3 Rights Killings
R. E. Davis Fifty Reasons Why You Should Be A Member of the Original Ku Klux Klan
1968 Unknown Former Klan Chief Begins Prison Term
1968 Unknown Forrest County Jury Jails Bowers, Plus 10: File Murder, Arson Counts
1963 Unknown Four Yale University Divinity School Students Describe...A Week in Mississippi
Peter Slade
Foy Valentine
Foy Valentine, Telephone Interview; 10/10/01
Fred A. Alexander
John F. Alexander
Freedom Now, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1966
1994 Jeffrey Fleishman Freedom Summer Wrought Change Despite Bombs, Blood
1963 Unknown Funeral Aftermath
1963 Unknown Funeral March Finishes in White-Led Agitation: Minority of Mourners at Evers Rites Jailed (Agitation)
1963 Unknown Funeral March Finishes in White-Led Agitation: Minority of Mourners at Evers Rites Jailed (Funeral)
1964 Unknown God Help Us to Move...
Myrtle Lane
Marjory Collins
Goin' to Jail
1994 Jonathan Tilove Graduate Program At Ole Miss Painting a Picture of a New South
1994 Beverly Pettigrew Kraft Harmony Christens Rebuilt Church
1968 Unknown Hawkins is Charged in Bomb Try (Incomplete Article)
Ed King Herrons & Beloved Community
1968 Unknown Hint Arrest Near in King Slaying
1968 Unknown House Passes CR Measure
1968 Unknown In Chicago: KKK Plotting Daley's Death
1968 Unknown In Dahmer Case: Sessum's Trial Starts Monday
1968 Unknown In Lyons Trial: Dahmer's Widow First Witness
1994 Charles Marsh In Search of Sam Bowers
1965 Unknown Incident Summary...
1968 Unknown Injured Kennedy Fights for Life: Condition Critical
1968 Unknown Injuries Fatal to Sen. Kennedy: Nation Grieves
J. Oscar Lee
Alfred J. Kramer
Interracial News Service September-October 1962 Issue
Charles Marsh
Bob Zellner
Interview with Bob Zellner, 3/29/1995
Charles Marsh
Sam Bowers
Interview with Sam Bowers, 8/28/1994: Strick's Barbecue
Charles Marsh
Sam Bowers
Interview with Sam H. Bowers, Jr., 8/21/1994: Stick's Barbecue Restaurant
Charles Marsh
Sam Bowers
Interview with Sam H. Bowers, Jr., 8/26/1994: Uncle Roy's Home Cookin and Strick's Barbecue
1966 Unknown Invitation to Murder
1998 JMC Ledger J. Mitchell Pieces
1968 Unknown Jackson Bombing: Hinds Jury Indicts Ten
1994 Unknown Jackson Clarion-Ledger May 16, 1994 Issue
1994 unknown Jackson Clarion-Ledger May 29, 1994 Issue
1964 Ed King Jackson Mississippi, May 1963- "Woolworth's Lunch Counter Sit In"-Working Draft
1963 Ed King Jackson Movement, Spring 1963
1963 Ed King Jackson Movement, Spring 1963-"Children's Crusades and Concentration Camps"
1963 Ed King Jackson Movement, Spring 1963-Woolworth's Part VIII
1964 Ed King Jackson Movement, Spring 1963: Part XI-C Methodist Church
1964 Ed King Jackson Movement, Spring 1963: Part XIV-A Church Visits
Ed King Jackson Movement: May - June 1964 (Untitled Document)
1968 Unknown Jail Buckley For Contempt
1968 Unknown JBW Urges "Restraint"
1967 Unknown John Doar Leaving Post
John Lewis
John Lewis Interview Concerning the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Charles Marsh
John Perkins
John M. Perkins in Conversation with Charles Marsh: Let Justice Roll Down
1968 Unknown Johnson Appoints Panel to Seek Violence Causes
1968 Unknown Jordan Gets Four Years
1968 Unknown Judge Denies Wilson Bond
1968 Unknown Judge to Rule on Wilson Bond
1968 Unknown Jury Deadlocks: Enter Mistrial in Lyons' Case
1968 Unknown Jury Finds Buckley Guilty of Kidnap: May Get 10 Years
1968 Unknown Jury Finds Carr Guilty in Alleged KKK Shooting
1968 Unknown Jury Frees Sam Bowers
1968 Unknown Jury Indicts 16 in Dahmer Case
1968 Unknown Jury Jails Bowers
1994 Beverly Pettigrew Kraft Jury Selection Complete in Beckwith trial
1968 Unknown Jury Still Out in Bowers Case
1968 Unknown Jury Tampering Case Halts Dahmer Trials: Hall Quashes Special Venire
1993 Jack Bass Justice Finally Comes in the Orangeburg Massacre
1988 Unknown Kill 1, Wound 3 in Bomb Attempt: Link Action to Ku Klux
1967 Unknown Killing Follows Mississippi Vote: Negro Slain, White is Held-16 Negroes Win Elections
1963 Jeannette King King Family Christmas Letter(Untitled Document)
1968 Unknown King Funeral Draws 50,000
1968 J.W.West King's Killer Hides; Who's Helping Him?
1968 Unknown Klan Signs Triggers Race Violence in N. Carolina
1968 Unknown Klan Signs Triggers Race Violence in N. Carolina
1998 Curtis Wilkie Klansman's Defense Accuses State of Leading 'A Persecution Mississippi Trial Revisits 1966 Case
1998 Jerry Mitchell Klansman's Interviews Subpoenaed in Dahmer Case: Tape Recordings of Sam Bowers Are in State Archives Library
1998 Unknown Laurel Leader-Call 1968 Article Call Sheet
1998 Unknown Laurel Leader-Call 1968 Article Call Sheet: April-July
1968 Unknown LBJ Asks Nation to Deny Violence: Says Law to Prevail
1968 Unknown LBJ Keeping Weary Vigil
1964 Ed King Letter from Ed King to Dick Gould (05/07/1964)
Fannie Lou Hamer Letter from Fannie Lou Hamer to Unknown Person
1964 Gerald E. Forshey Letter from Gerald E. Forshey to Joan (05/15/1963)
1963 Grace Bowman Letter from Grace Bowman to Ed King and John Salter
Howard Spencer
John B. Garner
Letter from Howard Spencer and John Garner to Methodist Bishops
1966 Joyce C. Ladner Letter from Joyce to Trump
1963 Julian Bond Letter from Julian Bond to James Ridgeway
1963 Ned Letter from Ned to Joan Trumpauer
1965 Roy Moore Letter from Roy K. Moore to Paul Johnson
1968 Unknown Liberals Push CR Legislation
J.H. O'Dell
Fannie Lou Hamer
Life in Mississippi: An Interview with Fannie Lou Hamer
Unknown List of White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi
1963 Unknown Local Clerics Voice Regret Over Bombing
1968 Unknown Lone Juror Gets Bowers Mistrial
1972 James Forman Lucretia Collins: "The Spirit of Nashville"
1968 Unknown Lyons' Case: May Reach Jury Late Thursday
1964 Unknown Mamie Hit!
1968 Unknown Massive Search on for Rifleman
1965 Unknown Massive Voter Drive Launched
1968 Unknown May Take Longer For Wilson Case
1968 Unknown Mayor Allen Tells Widow
1994 Lucius Lampton McKenzie and Paper 'Keep World Safe for Hypocrisy'
1963 Ed King Memo on Police Brutality (Untitled Document)
1963 Unknown Methodists Toll Bell for Slain Evers
1965 Unknown MFDP News November 1965 Issue
Ed King Midnight in the Delta - Terror
1964 Joe Pfister Mississippi and the Freedom Vote
1965 Unknown Mississippi Charged with Terror Camp
1964 Paul Good Mississippi Clergymen Preach on 'Hatred, Violence and Bigotry'
1968 Drew Pearson Mississippi Has Great Racial Changes Since '64
1964 Unknown Mississippi Lambasted by Tougaloo Chaplain
1964 Ed King Mississippi Life (Fall 1963) VI-B: "Church"
1955 Tom Ethridge Mississippi Notebook
1994 Claude Lewis Mississippi Shows Changes in Beckwith Trial
1964 Howard Zinn Mississippi Voter Registration Struggles (Untitled Document)
1970 Bob Moses Mississippi: 1961-1962
1964 Christopher Jencks Mississippi: From Conversion to Coercion
1965 George Ballis Moses of Mississippi Raises Some Universal Questions
Pat Kaye Mother Defends Sellers
1963 Unknown Mrs. Medgar Evers Speaks to Cheering Tougalooans
1956 Unknown Musician Flogged Over Integration
1968 Unknown Mystery Shrouds Delay in Selecting Smith Jury
1962 Unknown Negro Church Restoration Fund
1963 Unknown Negro Leaders Pause to Reconsider
1963 W. C. Shoemaker Negroes Make Little Headway With Campaign
1963 Unknown News of the World: Minister Arrested in Prayer Demonstration
1966 Unknown Newsletter of the Self-Help Coordinating Council January 1966 Issue
1968 Unknown No Report on Manhunt
1963 Unknown Note from a Negro in BOMBingham, Alabama(Untitled Document)
1998 Jerry Mitchell Notes Link Former DA to Release of Pitts: Convicted Dahmer Killer Told to Steer Clear of Mississippi, Notes Claim
1968 Charles Marsh Notes on a January 1968 Clarion Ledger Article Concerning Sam Bowers (Untitled Document)
1968 Charles Marsh Notes on a May 1968 Clarion-Ledger Article Concerning Sam Bowers (Untitled Document)
1968 Charles Marsh Notes on a May 1968 Clarion-Ledger Article Concerning Sam Bowers (Untitled Document)
1960 Unknown Notes on Activism and Violence(Untitled Document)
1997 Jerry Mitchell Notes Threaten to Shed Light on Activists' Deaths: Friend of Sam Bowers Claims Book Names "Real" Killers of Civil Rights Leaders
1968 Unknown Order 'Shoot-To-Kill' in Riot-Torn Cleveland: 'Black Power' is Seen
1966 Jack Nelson Ousted Chairman Tells of New Setup in SNCC
1968 Unknown Overrules Motion: Begin Selection of Bowers Jury
Ed King Part IV Winter-Spring 1963 "Vicksburg"
1963 George W. Cornell Pastor's Race Stands Cause Resignations
1965 Unknown Philadelphia, Mississippi
1968 Unknown Pick Jury for Lyons
1968 Unknown Pitts Gets Five Years
1998 Jerry Mitchell Pitts Plans to Surrender Soon: In Tape left at Clarion-Ledger, Former Klansman Apologizes for Violence
1968 Unknown Pitts Relates 'Plot' of Klan
1998 Jerry Mitchell Pitts Saga Baffles Justice Experts: Expert 'Never Heard of' Convict Walking Away from a Life Sentence
1968 Unknown Pitts Testifies Against Wilson
1968 Unknown Pitts Testifies in Dahmer Case: He's Last for State
1963 Unknown Plea for Peace
1963 Unknown Police Arrest 18 Negroes in Carolina Demonstration
1968 Unknown Police Rough-up Hippies, Newsmen
1968 Unknown Police, Guards Remain Alert
1994 Jerry Mitchell Portrayal of Evers Crucial in Trial
1964 David M. Spain M.D. Post Mortem Examination Report of the Body of James Chaney
1964 David M. Spain M.D. Post Mortem Examination Report of the Body of James Chaney
1972 James Forman Power for Black People
1968 Unknown Pray for Recovery
1982 Frye Gaillard Preacher to the Damned
1964 Unknown Presbyterian Life May 1964 Issue
1995 Ed King Present Opening Chapter On Neshoba-Freedom Summer Book Manuscript
1962 Will D. Campbell Race and the Renewal of the Church
1968 Unknown Racial Strife Ravages Cities
1968 Unknown Racial Violence Racks Nation: Washington Under Guard
1988 Charles F. Holman III Racial, Religious Hate: Is it Growing?
1968 Unknown Rampaging Mobs Burn, Loot, Kill
E. Al Minter
Gerry Graves
K.G. Gregory
Jane Goodman
Readers' Views on Byron De La Beckwith Trial
1963 Sheldon Trapp Reminiscences Written Upon Return from Jackson, Mississippi (Untitled Article)
1993 Unknown Rep. Lewis Wants Army to Explain Spying on Blacks
1963 Ed King Report on the Dereliction of Duty by Jackson, MS Police Officers (Untitled Document)
1963 James Reed Reprint of Articles from the Chicago Daily News, October 1963
1962 Unknown Resume of the Inquiry Re: Robert Parris Moses Conscientious Objector
1994 Dan Even Retired UM History Professor David Sansing Examines Evers Case
1965 Unknown Rev. Thompson Leaves Mississippi after Threats for Rights Activities
Ed King Rifle Squads in the Beloved Community
1968 Unknown Riot Toll Mounting
1963 Unknown Rite Pays Tribute to Evers
1994 Jerry Mitchell Rocky Point Church Congregation Split Over Suing Arsonists, Insurance
1963 Unknown Role in Murder of Evers Laid to Southern Officials
1968 Unknown Rule Mistrial for Massengale
1968 Unknown Rule Mistrial In Wilson Case
1968 Unknown Says FBI Chief: Stokely, Rap Incite Riots
1963 Claude Sitton Scores Arrested in Jackson March
1994 Ken H. Fortenberry Secrets in Dahmer Firebombing Didn't Die with Hero
Ed King Section from Manuscript on Mississippi Movement
1968 Unknown See 'Apartheid' Society in U.S.
1968 Unknown Seek Killer in Mexico
1968 Eliott Chaze Selection of Sessum Jury Near Complete: Death Chair to be Sought?
1972 James Forman Selma Freedom Day
1968 Unknown Senate Balking at CR 'Package'
1968 Unknown Senators Flay King's March
1968 Unknown Set Curfew At Mobile
1961 Unknown Shootings and Killings Since 1961
1968 Fannie Lou Hamer Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired
1968 Elizabeth Sewell Signs and Cities
1964 Unknown SIM Intern Reports at Mid-Year
1968 Unknown Situation Worse: More Troops Deploy in D.C.
Ed King Sixties and Sit-ins
1963 Unknown Slain N.A.A.C.P. Member Mourned
1966 Unknown SNCC: Notes and Comments April 1966 Issue
1994 Beverly Pettigrew Kraft Some Lack Knowledge About Evers
1976 Unknown Southern Exposure Volume IV, Number 3
1964 Unknown Southwest Mississippi
1968 Unknown Speedy Release Aim of Defense
1968 Unknown Speedy Trials' Motion Denied
Charles Marsh
Spencer Perkins
Spencer Perkins Interview
1990 Spencer Perkins Spencer Perkins's Unpublished Autobiography Chapter: "Line in the Dirt"
1990 Spencer Perkins Spencer Perkins's Unpublished Autobiography Chapter: "Philippi"
1998 Jerry Mitchell Spy Records Sought in Dahmer's Death: Files Requested on 25 People in Killing of Civil Rights Activist
2000 Staff Writer State Considers Pursuing Murder Charges in Case
1968 Eliott Chaze State Rests on DeBoxtel
1968 Eliott Chaze State's Ace Card is Billy R. Pitts: His Warrant Kept Secret
1994 Jerry Mitchell State's Contrast Reach to its Soul
1965 Ellen Key Blunt Still to Overcome: She Found No Freedom
2000 Jerry Mitchell Stringer Recalls "Elimination" Plan
1962 John Collins Student Interracial Ministry: A Venture in Reconciliation
1963 Unknown Students Report From the Summer of 1963
1968 Unknown Suspect's Diary Foretells Deed
1966 Unknown Tent City
1965 James Saggus Terror Silences Negroes, Whites in Mississippi, Rights Unit Told
Ed King Testimony from Mt. Zion
1972 James Forman The "Big Five" and the SNCC
1959 Ralph McGill The Agony of the Southern Minister
1964 Joe T. Odle The Editorial Page: Smoke Over Mississippi
1990 Lawrence Wright The First Church of Rednecks, White Socks, and Blue Ribbon Beer
Emily Stoper
Fannie Lou Hamer
Ella Baker
The Freedom Democratic Party and the Challenges
1972 James Forman The Freedom Vote
Myrtle Lane
Marjory Collins
The King is Coming!
1965 Haynes Johnson The Klan's Last Stand
1968 Elizabeth Sewell The Land Was Theirs Before They Were the Land's...
1996 Sea Wilentz The Last Integrationist: John Lewis's American Odyssey
Ed King The Minister & the Church & the Struggle to Come (Untitled Document)
1996 Martin Peretz The New Republic July 1996 Issue
1964 Unknown The New Republic September 1964 Issue
1965 Unknown The New South Student November 1965 Issue
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) The Nocturnal Messenger
Ed King The Silent Fifties: McCarthyism and Racism; White Resistance; Black Resistance
1964 Unknown The Student Voice December 1964 Issue
1963 Unknown The Student Voice November 1963 Issue
1994 Claudia Dreifus The Widow Gets Her Verdict
1968 John Chamberlain These Days: The Ghetto Move to "Green Power"
1968 Unknown Tightest Security for Memphis March
1986 Walter Isaacson Times Not Forgotten; In Georgia, Two Old Friends From the Movement Days Collide
1966 David Llorens Titles, Labels or People?: In Search of Commitment
1994 Jerry Mitchell Tougaloo Ex-Chaplain Expects to Testify at Beckwith's 3rd Trial
Jack Minnis
Fannie Lou Hamer
Transcript of Interview by Jack Minnis with Fannie Lou Hamer
1961 Frank Holloway Travel Notes from a Deep South Tourist
1968 Unknown Travis Buckley Case May Reach Jury During Day
1968 Unknown Travis Buckley Goes on Trial
1965 Unknown Tribute Set Monday for Rights Trio
1989 Charles H. Lippy Twentieth-Century Shapers of American Popular Religion
1963 Unknown Unrest After Evers Funeral (Untitled Article Fragment)
1968 Unknown Urge Action on CR Bills
1968 Unknown Wallace Calls Shooting "Tragic Blot On History"
1998 Jerry Mitchell Warrant Issued 32 Years After Crime: Life Sentence Nets No State Time
1991 Unknown What Martin Luther King Would Do Now About: Drugs, Poverty, and Black-Jewish Relations; Widow and Associates Tell How He Would Respond to Today's Burning Issues
1996 Kevin Chappell Where Are the Civil Rights Icons of the '60s?: What Black Activists Are Doing in the 1990s
1964 Ed King White Church (Part Four) II: "Church in Prison"
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XIV-A1, "Church Visits, Winter to Easter"
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XIV-B, "Easter Arrests" (Untitled Document)
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XIX, "Conclusion -- Neshoba"
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XVI-B, "Church Conference Details"
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XVI-C, "Mississippi Church Reaction to Conference"
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XVII, "Church Jokes" (Untitled Document)
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XVIII, "Epistles"
Ed King White Church (Part Four); Section XX, "Footnotes"
1964 Ed King White Church (Part One) II: Birmingham
1964 Ed King White Church (Part One) III: "Citizens Council vs. Church"
1964 Ed King White Church (Part One) IV: First Church Arrests
1964 Ed King White Church (Part One) V-C: Trial
1964 Ed King White Church (Part One) VIII: First Arrest Reactions
1964 Ed King White Church (Part One) XII-B: "Reaction, Second Arrest (Editorial Comments)"
1964 Ed King White Church (Part One) XIV-B: White Church Leaders-von Hoffman
1964 Ed King White Church (Part Three) IV: "Selah-28"
1964 Ed King White Church (Part Three) V-B: "MAMMAL"
1964 Ed King White Church (Part Three) V-C: "Rev. C. Duke vs 28"
1964 Ed King White Church (Part Three) V-D: "Rev. xyz (Frozen Liberal, Frozen Neo-orthodox)"
1964 Ed King White Church (Part Three) VII: "Spring, Summer '63"
Ed King White Church (Part Two), Section VII, "Footnotes"
Ed King White Church (Part Two); Section III-A, "Ole Miss Riots, 1962"
Ed King White Church (Part Two); Section III-B, "Ole Miss Riots"
Ed King White Church (Part Two); Section IV, "Second Thoughts"
Ed King White Church -- "Beauty of Ashes"
Ed King White Church -- Beauty for Ashes
1964 Ed King White Churches (Part One) III-B: "White Citizens Councils and Tougaloo Movement Statement"
1963 Unknown White Minister Held in Jackson
1963 Charles Morgan, Jr. Who is Guilty in Birmingham?
1964 Unknown Why Burn Negro Churches?
1960 John M. Mecartney Will "Pray-Ins" Follow "Sit-Ins"?
1968 Unknown Will Appeal: Buckley Gets 10-Year Term
1989 Unknown Will D. Campbell
1966 Mary Ann Pardue Williams Raps Double Standard Law Forces
1968 Unknown Wilson Case Moves Ahead
1968 Unknown Wilson Loses Freedom Try: Dale Sustains Move by State
Ed King Winter, Spring 1964 Life in Mississippi XIX "The Canton Road"
1968 Unknown Witness Relates DeBoxtel's Role: Rogers Tells of Activity
Ed King Woolworth's Lunch Counter Sit-In
1968 Unknown Work on Jury in Smith Trial